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[人物]比尔盖茨:我深信核能会像疫苗一样产生革命性影响 [复制链接]

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比尔盖茨:我深信核能会像疫苗一样产生革命性影响


发布时间: 2019/01/02 14:28:49

来源: 中国核工业杂志


  (原标题:独家专访! 比尔·盖茨:我深信核能会像疫苗一样产生革命性影响)

  
比尔盖茨:我深信核能会像疫苗一样产生革命性影响




  作者:葛维维

  2018年底,盖茨先生第三次接受《中国核工业》杂志专访。专访中,他提出了很多核能发展的创新理念,比如要保证核能在无碳发电中的地位;比如核电不能只盯着生活和商业用电,重点应放在交通和工业用电等。我们精选了专访中的独到观点。

  1.对我来说,能够在核能等迷人的领域工作是一种幸运。我与很多才华横溢的人合作,研究那些能够产生巨大影响的想法。

  2.现在真正让我全心全意地扑在上面的是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会和泰拉能源的工作。这些工作有一个共同点,就是都能有机会去解决人类目前面临的一些紧迫挑战。

  3.我们致力于提供所有人都能享受到的便宜、可靠的电力能源。我相信这项技术会像软件和疫苗一样产生革命性的影响。

  4.更多地利用核能和可再生能源等清洁能源来发电阻止全球气候变化,需要个人和公共部门共同努力,开发和部署这些能源。

  5.全球核能事业不断发展,对应对全球气候变化,创造增长、发展的机遇非常重要。

  6.先进的计算机技术和现代工程工具已经克服了那些曾经阻止核能发挥其全部潜力的困难。

  7.由于新的设计能够减少核废物和简化燃料循环的过程,核能的部署将会更快。

  8.美国优先保证核能在无碳发电中的地位。许多国家的电价还没有包含空气污染以及气候变化带来的额外成本。

  9.居民用电和商业用电仅占我们总能源消耗的三分之一左右,交通和工业过程消耗了另外三分之二能源。核能的另一个巨大潜力就是它在工业过程中减少碳排放的能力。

  10.中国迅速增长的对清洁能源的需求,使它成为未来新项目最具吸引力的市场。

  专访比尔·盖茨:

  拥抱核能,应对全球气候变化

  记者:您曾作为微软公司联合创始人享誉世界,但近十年来更多的人开始了解您是作为泰拉能源主席的身份。由于您在能源领域的努力,去年您还获得了中国工程院外籍院士的头衔。从计算机跨界到能源,您如何看待这两种身份的转变?

  盖茨先生:对我来说,能够在许多迷人的领域工作是一种幸运。在这些领域,我与很多才华横溢的人合作,研究那些能够产生巨大影响的想法。

  当我在微软工作时,我和我的团队热衷于开发很棒的软件,这些软件授予人们使用。现在我依然会参与微软的一些工作,但是真正让我全心全意地扑在上面的是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会和泰拉能源的工作。这些工作有一个共同点,就是都能有机会去解决人类目前面临的一些紧迫挑战。比如,通过泰拉能源,我们致力于提供所有人都能享受到的便宜、可靠的电力能源。我相信这项技术会像软件和疫苗一样产生革命性的影响。

  记者:您曾在很多场合公开表示,发展核能是解决人类能源问题最清洁有效的一种方式,您也以实际行动支持了这一想法。那么,现今您如何看待核能的地位及其发展潜力?

  盖茨先生:合国联府政间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)在其最新的报告中,呼吁减少全球碳排放量。我们需要减少碳排放来阻止全球气候变化。实现这一目标的一个关键路径就是更多地利用核能和可再生能源等清洁能源来发电。这也需要个人和公共部门共同努力,开发和部署这些能源。

  过去60年里,核能之所以能发挥如此重要的作用,很大程度上得益于国际合作。正是因为国际合作,目前全世界有10000多家医院在使用医用同位素;30个国家建造了400多座在运的核反应堆和245座正在运行的研究用反应堆。全球核能事业不断发展,对应对全球气候变化,创造增长、发展的机遇非常重要。

  记者:要实现核电的进一步发展,您觉得整个行业还面临哪些方面的挑战?如何看待和实现核电的全球发展?

  盖茨先生:目前很多国家正在部署先进的核技术。包括中国、印度和阿联酋在内的17个国家正在开工建设新的核电机组。

  我乐观地认为,像泰拉能源行波堆这样先进的核能技术将有助于消除公众对核能安全性的一些担忧。先进的计算机技术和现代工程工具已经克服了那些曾经阻止核能发挥其全部潜力的困难,由于新的设计能够减少核废物和简化燃料循环的过程,核能的部署将会更快。

  机构如何为出售的电力定价,也将影响世界某些地区核能的未来。美国目前优先保证核能在无碳发电中的地位。许多市场的电价还没有包含空气污染以及气候变化带来的额外成本。

  核能的另一个巨大潜力就是它在工业过程中减少碳排放的能力。居民用电和商业用电仅占我们总能源消耗的三分之一左右,交通和工业过程消耗了另外三分之二能源。

  记者:此次您参加中国国际进口博览会还做了主旨发言,是否可以谈一谈您此行的一些想法?今年中国已经陆续实现三代核电技术AP1000、EPR并网发电,您如何看待中国核电的发展前景?

  盖茨先生:整个世界需要向着接近零温室气体排放的目标迈进,我认为核能将在这个过程中扮演关键角色。IPCC最近的一份报告提到,如果我们要避免气候变化的最坏后果,核能必须发挥更大的作用。中国迅速增长的对清洁能源的需求,使它成为未来新项目最具吸引力的市场。

  比尔·盖茨专访英文原文

  China Nuclear Industry Magazine Q&A

  Q(Question):You are world famous as co-founder of Microsoft. In recent decades, people know more about your identification as the chairman of TerraPower. Last year, you were elected to Chinese Academy of Engineering for your endeavor in energy. What’s your opinion about the transformation of your two identities

  A(Answer):I’m very lucky that I get to work in many fascinating areas where I partner with brilliant people on ideas that could have a big impact. At Microsoft, we were passionate about writing great software that empowered people. I’m still involved with Microsoft today but am focusing full-time on my work with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as well as TerraPower. What all this work has in common is the opportunity to help people solve pressing challenges. For example with TerraPower we are trying to help create affordable, reliable electricity for everyone. I believe it could be as transformative as software and vaccines have been.

  Q:In many public occasions, you have said that nuclear is the cleanest and most efficient way to solve the energy problem. Also,you supported the idea with practical action. Nowadays, what do you think the role of nuclear energy played in contemporary energy development What is your view on further potential of nuclear power

  A:In the latest IPCC report, the call to action was clear. We need to reduce carbon emissions to stop climate change. One key way to do that is to generate more power with clean sources like nuclear and renewables. That will require the private and public sectors to work together on developing and deploying these sources.

  International cooperation is what has allowed nuclear energy to play such an important role over the past 60 years. It led to the use of medical isotopes in 10,000 hospitals worldwide. It aided 30 countries in developing more than 400 operational nuclear power reactors and 245 operational research reactors. Continued global progress on nuclear energy is important for fighting climate change and creating opportunities for growth and development.

  Q:To push the nuclear technology to further development, what are the challenges you think we will meet Meanwhile, in order to make nuclear industry to achieve a global development, what should we do to mitigate these problems

  A:Advancing nuclear technology is being deployed. New nuclear construction is underway in 17 countries including China, India and the UAE.

  I’m optimistic that advanced technologies like TerraPower’s traveling wave reactor will help overcome some public concerns about nuclear power. Advanced computing and modern engineering tools have closed gaps that made it difficult for nuclear technology to achieve its full potential. Nuclear deployment will take place even faster as new designs reduce waste and simplify the fuel cycle.

  How utilities choose to price the power they sell will also affect the future of nuclear energy in some parts of the world. In the U.S., it is a priority right now to preserve nuclear’s role in carbon free electricity generation. The cost of electricity in many markets does not reflect the externalized costs of air pollution and climate change.

  The other great potential I see is in the ability for nuclear energy to reduce carbon in industrial processes. Residential and commercial electricity use is only about one third of our total energy use. Transportation and industrial processes represent the other two thirds of energy demand and emissions.

  Q:You have attended the China international import expo and made a forum speech. Can you share your impression with us This year in China, the third-generation nuclear technology AP1000 and EPR has been grid-connected, what’s your expectation on China’s nuclear industry

  

A:The world needs to get to nearly zero greenhouse gas emissions, and I think nuclear power is going to play a crucial role in that effort. The most recent IPCC report noted that nuclear power must play a greater role if we’re going to avoid the worst effects of climate change. China’s fast-rising demand for clean energy makes it an attractive market for future new projects.


  (本文经过泰拉能源授权刊登,特别鸣谢泰拉能源公司高级副总裁王定南、原环球创新核能技术有限公司副总裁章庆华为本次专访所付出的努力)

  



  


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